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Ultrasonic Homogenizer Published Papers

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Article No. Title
UH1071 Lung protection by inhalation of exogenous solubilized extracellular matrix
  Jinglei Wu, Priya Ravikumar, Kytai T. Nguyen, Connie C. W. Hsia, Yi Hong
PDF icon Decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) contains complex tissue-specific components that work in concert to promote tissue repair and constructive remodeling and has been used experimentally and clinically to accelerate epithelial wound repair, leading us to hypothesize that lung-derived ECM could mitigate acute lung injury. To explore the therapeutic potential of ECM for noninvasive delivery to the lung, we decellularized and solubilized porcine lung ECM, then characterized the composition, concentration, particle size and stability of the preparation. The ECM preparation at 3.2 mg/mL with average particle size <3 μm was tested in vitro on human A549 lung epithelial cells exposed to 95% O2 for 24 hours, and in vivo by tracheal instillation or nebulization into the lungs of rats exposed intermittently or continuously to 90% O2 for a cumulative 72 hours. Our results showed that the preparation was enriched in collagen, reduced in glycosaminoglycans, and contained various bioactive molecules. Particle size was concentration-dependent. Compared to the respective controls treated with cell culture medium in vitro or saline in vivo, ECM inhalation normalized cell sur- vival and alveolar morphology, and reduced hyperoxia-induced apoptosis and oxidative damage. This proof-of-concept study established the methodology, feasibility and therapeu- tic potential of exogenous solubilized ECM for pulmonary cytoprotection, possibly as an adjunct or potentiator of conventional therapy.
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UH1072 Lewy body-like alpha-synuclein inclusions trigger reactive microgliosis prior to nigral degeneration
  Megan F. Duffy , Timothy J. Collier, Joseph R. Patterson, Christopher J. Kemp, Kelvin C. Luk , Malú G. Tansey, Katrina L. Paumier, Nicholas M. Kanaan , D. Luke Fischer, Nicole K. Polinski, Olivia L. Barth, Jacob W. Howe, Nishant N. Vaikath, Nour K. Majbour, Omar M. A. El-Agnaf
and Caryl E. Sortwell
PDF icon Converging evidence suggests a role for microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Animal models of PD can serve as a platform to investigate the role of neuroinflammation in degeneration in PD. However, due to features of the previously available PD models, interpretations of the role of neuroinflammation as a contributor to or a consequence of neurodegeneration have remained elusive. In the present study, we investigated the temporal relationship of neuroinflammation in a model of synucleinopathy following intrastriatal injection of pre-formed alpha-synuclein fibrils (α-syn PFFS).
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UH1073 Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus directly attacks Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus Cystic fibrosis isolates
  Valerio Iebba, Valentina Totino, Floriana Santangelo, Antonella Gagliardi, Luana Ciotoli, Alessandra Virga, Cecilia Ambrosi, Monica Pompili, Riccardo V. De Biase, Laura Selan, Marco Artini, Fabrizio Pantanella, Francesco Mura, Claudio Passariello, Mauro Nicoletti, Lucia Nencioni, Maria Trancassini, Serena Quattrucci and Serena Schippa
PDF icon Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a predator bacterial species found in the environment and within the human gut, able to attack Gram-negative prey. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease which usually presents lung colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. Here, we investigated the predatory behavior of B. bacteriovorus against these two pathogenic species with: (1) broth culture; (2) “static” biofilms; (3) field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM); (4) “flow” biofilms; (5) zymographic technique. We had the first evidence of B. bacteriovorus survival with a Gram-positive prey, revealing a direct cell-to-cell contact with S. aureus and a new “epibiotic” foraging strategy imaged with FESEM. Mean attaching time of HD100 to S. aureus cells was 185 s, while “static” and “flow” S. aureus biofilms were reduced by 74 (at 24 h) and 46% (at 20 h), respectively. Furthermore, zymograms showed a differential bacteriolytic activity exerted by the B. bacteriovorus lysates on P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. The dual foraging system against Gram-negative (periplasmic) and Gram-positive (epibiotic) prey could suggest the use of B. bacteriovorus as a “living antibiotic” in CF, even if further studies are required to simulate its in vivo predatory behavior.
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UH1074 Stability Study of Ipomoea reptans Extract Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS) as Anti-Diabetic Therapy
  Pinus Jumaryatno, Lutfi Chabib, Farida Hayati, Rizki Awaluddin
PDF icon Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the metabolic syndromes that is characterized by the excessive accumulation of blood glucose, also called as hyperglycemia, and carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism disorder. The antioxidant compounds on Ipomoea reptans possess the pharmacological activity of DM with low absorption in the systemic circulation. Stability is one of the factors that affect the safety, quality, and efficacy of the SNEDDS (Self- Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery) dosage form. This study aimed to evaluate the stability of Ipomoea reptans leaf extract (IPE) SNEDDS. The IPE SNEDDS was made using capryol 90 as the oil phase, tween 20 as surfactants, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 as the cosurfactant. The stability study was conducted with several physical stability tests, which were centrifugation test, heating-cooling cycle test, and freeze-thaw cycle test. The result indicated that the particle size of the IPE SNEDDS was ≤100 nm and indicated good physical stability. It can be concluded that the IPE SNEDDS possesses good stability profile.
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UH1075 Nuclear Factor I Represses the Notch Effector HEY1 in Glioblastoma1
  Miranda Brun, Saket Jain, Elizabeth A. Monckton and Roseline Godbout
PDF icon Glioblastomas (GBMs) are highly aggressive brain tumors with a dismal prognosis. Nuclear factor I (NFI) is a family of transcription factors that controls glial cell differentiation in the developing central nervous system. NFIs have previously been shown to regulate the expression of astrocyte markers such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in both normal brain and GBM cells. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)–on-chip to identify additional NFI targets in GBM cells. Analysis of our ChIP data revealed ~400 putative NFI target genes including an effector of the Notch signaling pathway, HEY1, implicated in the maintenance of neural stem cells. All four NFIs (NFIA, NFIB, NFIC, and NFIX) bind to NFI recognition sites located within 1 kb upstream of the HEY1 transcription site. We further showed that NFI negatively regulates HEY1 expression, with knockdown of all four NFIs in GBM cells resulting in increased HEY1 RNA levels. HEY1 knockdown in GBM cells decreased cell proliferation, increased cell migration, and decreased neurosphere formation. Finally, we found a general correlation between elevated levels of HEY1 and expression of the brain neural stem/progenitor cell marker B-FABP in GBM cell lines. Knockdown of HEY1 resulted in an increase in the RNA levels of the GFAP astrocyte differentiation marker. Overall, our data indicate that HEY1 is negatively regulated by NFI family members and is associated with increased proliferation, decreased migration, and increased stem cell properties in GBM cells.
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UH1076 Nuclear Factor I Regulates Brain Fatty Acid-Binding Protein and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Gene Expression in Malignant Glioma Cell Lines
  Miranda Brun, Jeffrey E. Coles, Elizabeth A. Monckton, Darryl D. Glubrecht, Dwayne Bisgrove and Roseline Godbout
PDF icon Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an intermediate filament protein normally found in astrocytes, and the radial glial marker brain fatty acid- binding protein (B-FABP; also known as FABP7) are co-expressed in malignant glioma cell lines and tumors. Nuclear factor I (NFI) recognition sites have been identified in the B-FABP and GFAP promoters, and transcription of both genes is believed to be regulated by NFI. Here, we study the role of the different members of the NFI family in regulating endogenous and ectopic B-FABP and GFAP gene transcription in human malignant glioma cells. We show by gel shifts that all four members of the NFI family (NFIA, NFIB, NFIC, and NFIX) bind to B-FABP and GFAP NFI consensus sites. Over-expression of NFIs, in conjunction with mutation analysis of NFI consensus sites using a reporter gene assay, supports a role for all four NFIs in the regulation of the GFAP and B-FABP genes. Knock- down of single or combined NFIs reveals promoter-dependent and promoter-context-dependent interaction patterns and suggests cross talk between the different members of the NFI family. Our data indicate that the NFI family of transcription factors plays a key role in the regulation of both the B-FABP and GFAP genes in malignant glioma cells.
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UH1077 The comparison of quality characteristics of refrigerated Carangoides coeruleopinnatus fillets with chitosan and nano-chitosan coatings
  Halimeh Alboghbeish, Ainaz Khodanazary
PDF icon The effects of chitosan (Ch) and Ch combined with sodium tripolyphosphate nanoparticles (Nch) as a coating material for Carangoides coeruleopinnatus fillets during refrigerated storage were investigated. Solutions containing Ch (2%, w/v) and Nch (with 2%, w/v Ch and 2% sodium tripolyphosphate) were used for the coating. Coated and non-coated fish (control samples) with Ch and Nch were analyzed for microbiological (total mesophilic and psychrotrophic count), physicochemical (total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), pH, trimethylamine (TMA), 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), free fatty acid (FFA), sulfhydryl (SH)) and sensory attributes. Among the edible coatings, Nch was most effective in controlling lipid oxidation and reducing bacteria count in C. coeruleopinnatus during refrigerated storage. Corresponding maximum levels of total mesophilic count at 4oC were 5.11, 4.77 and 4.37 log cfu/g in control, Ch and Nch samples, respectively, while maximum levels of psychrophilic count count at 4oC were 4.43, 3.91 and 3.89 log cfu/g, respectively. Nano-chitosan can be used for preservation of quality properties of fish samples. The study showed that Nch could be used as a packaging material.
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UH1078 Influence of Multi Wall Carbon Nanotube(MWCNTs) Reinforcement on the Mechanical Properties and Vibration Behavior of Composite Plates
  Asst. Prof. Dr. Muhannad Al-Waily, Dr. Thaier J. Ntayeesh
PDF icon The Nano particles affect onto the mechanical properties of the materials. This effect leads to an effect on the vibration characteristic of plate structure like the natural frequency, mode shape, the response, and the induced stress in the plate. In this paper a study is done on the composite plate combined of woven reinforcement fiber and polyester resin materials, and then, the effect of Nano particle on to natural frequency and mechanical properties of the plate is investigated. The work included an evaluation of the natural frequency and the mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity) of the composite plate with different Nano particle weight fraction effect, where, the weight fraction studied are (0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, and 1%, from resin materials weight). An experimental study is used to evaluate the mechanical properties and natural frequency of composite materials plate with Nano particle effect, then, depending on this mechanical properties evaluated from the experimental work ; the natural frequency of plate is studied theoretically (analytically and numerically) to compare with the experimental results. A comparison of natural frequency results shows a good agreement between experimental and theoretical work, since the maximum error between its works about (8.73%). Finally, the results show that the Nano particle increasing the natural frequency and mechanical properties of plate materials with higher value at Nano particle weight fraction about (1%).
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UH1079 Greater fibroblast proliferation on an ultrasonicated ZnO/PVc nanocomposite material
  Paul M Maschhoff, Benjamin M Geilich, Thomas J Webster
PDF icon There has been a significant and growing concern over nosocomial medical device infections. Previous studies have demonstrated that embedding nanoparticles alone (specifically, zinc oxide [ZnO]) in conventional polymers (eg, polyvinyl chloride [PVC]) can decrease bacteria growth and may have the potential to prevent or disrupt bacterial processes that lead to infection. However, little to no studies have been conducted to determine mammalian cell functions on such a nanocomposite material. Clearly, for certain medical device applications, maintaining healthy mammalian cell functions while decreasing bacteria growth is imperative (yet uncommon). For this reason, in the presented study, ZnO nanoparticles of varying sizes (from 10 nm to .200 nm in diameter) and functionalization (including no functionalization to doping with aluminum oxide and functionalizing with a silane coupling agent KH550) were incorporated into PVC either with or without ultrasonication. Results of this study provided the first evidence of greater fibroblast density after 18 hours of culture on the smallest ZnO nanoparticle incorporated PVC samples with dispersion aided by ultrasonication. Specifically, the greatest amount of fibroblast proliferation was measured on ZnO nanoparticles functionalized with a silane coupling agent KH550; this sample exhibited the greatest dispersion of ZnO nanoparticles. Water droplet tests showed a general trend of decreased hydrophilicity when adding any of the ZnO nanoparticles to PVC, but an increase in hydrophilicity (albeit still below controls or pure PVC) when using ultrasonication to increase ZnO nanoparticle dispersion. Future studies will have to correlate this change in wettability to initial protein adsorption events that may explain fibroblast behavior. Mechanical tests also provided evidence of the ability to tailor mechanical properties of the ZnO/PVC nanocomposites through the use of the different ZnO nanoparticles. Coupled with previous antibacterial studies, the present study demonstrated that highly dispersed ZnO/PVC nanocomposite materials should be further studied for numerous medical device applications.
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UH1080 Development and in vitro characterization of nanoemulsions loaded with paclitaxel/γ-tocotrienol lipid conjugates
  Ahmed Abu-Fayyad, Mohammad M. Kamal, Jennifer L. Carroll, Ana-Maria Dragoi, Robert Cody, James Cardelli, Sami Nazzal
PDF icon Vitamin E TPGS is a tocopherol (α-T) based nonionic surfactant that was used in the formulation of the TocosolTM paclitaxel nanoemulsion, which was withdrawn from phase III clinical trials. Unlike tocopherols, however, the tocotrienol (T3) isomers of vitamin E were found to have innate anticancer activity and were shown to potentiate the antitumor activity of paclitaxel. The primary objective of the present study was therefore to develop a paclitaxel nanoemulsions by substituting α-T oil core of TocosolTM with γ-T3 in, and vitamin E TPGS with PEGylated γ-T3 as the shell, and test the nanoemulsions against Bx-PC-3 and PANC-1 pancreatic tumor cells. A secondary objective was to test the activity of paclitaxel when directly conjugated with the γ-T3 isomer of vitamin E. The synthesis of the conjugates was confirmed by NMR and mass spectroscopy. Developed nanoe- mulsions were loaded with free or lipid conjugated paclitaxel. Nanoemulsions droplets were < 300 nm with fastest release observed with formulations loaded with free paclitaxel when γ-T3 was used as the core. Substituting α-T with γ-T3 was also found to potentiate the anticancer activity of the nanoemulsions. Although marginal increase in activity was observed when nanoemulsions were loaded with free paclitaxel, a significant increase in activity was observed when lipid conjugates were used. The results from this study suggest that the developed paclitaxel nanoemulsions with either γ-T3, PEGylated γ-T3, or paclitaxel lipid conjugates may re- present a more promising option for paclitaxel delivery in cancer chemotherapy.
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Ultrasonic Homogenizers
Sometimes referred to as, Sonicator, Cell Disruptor or Cell Disrupter, Probe Sonicator, Ulrasonicator, Sonifier®, Sonic Dismembrator, and Ultrasonic Liquid Processor.

Sonifier is a registered trademark of Branson Ultrasonics Corporation

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Our Ultrasonic Homogenizer product line is being expanded to include thermo-conductive tube pods. KoldPods are available for 1.5ml Micro Tubes, 15ml and 50ml Conical tubes, and will decrease thermal variability with conventional temperature sources.

Ultrasonic Homogenizers are also referred to as Sonicators, Cell Disruptors, Probe Sonicators, Sonifiers®, and Sonic Dismembrators

Sonifier is a registered trademark of Branson Ultrasonics Corporation

 
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