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Article No. Title
UH1051 Nigrostriatal Dysfunction in Familial Alzheimer’s Disease-Linked APPswe/PS1 E9 Transgenic Mice Sylvia
PDF icon Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is often accompanied by extrapyramidal signs attributed to nigrostriatal dysfunction. The association between amyloid deposition and nigrostriatal degeneration is essentially unknown. We showed previously that the striatum and the substantia nigra of transgenic mice harboring familial AD (FAD)-linked APPswe/PS1 E9 mutants exhibit morphological alterations accompanied by amyloid- (A ) deposition (Perez et al., 2004). In the present study,wefurther investigated the interaction betweenA deposition and dopaminergic nigrostriatal dysfunction, by correlating morphological and biochemical changes in the nigrostriatal pathway with amyloid deposition pathology in the brains of 3- to 17-month-old APPswe/PS1 E9 transgenic mice and age-matched wild-type controls. We show thatA deposition is pronounced in the striatum of APPswe/PS1 E9 mice at 6 months of age, and the extent of deposition increases in an age-dependent manner. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive dystrophic neurites with rosette or grape-like cluster disposition are observed adjacent to A plaques and display multilaminar, multivesicular, and dense-core bodies as well as mitochondria. In addition, an age-dependent increase ofTHprotein levels are shown in nigral cells in these mutant mice. Using HPLC analysis, we found a reduction in the dopamine metabolite DOPAC in the striatum of these mice. These findings show a close association between amyloid deposition and nigrostriatal pathology and suggest that altered FAD-linked amyloid metabolism impairs, at least in part, the function of dopaminergic neurons.
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UH1052 Field-induced motion of ferrofluids through immiscible viscous media: Testbed for restorative treatment of retinal detachment
PDF icon Biocompatible, hydrophobic ferrofluids comprised of magnetite nanoparticles dispersed in polydimethylsiloxane show promise as materials for the treatment of retinal detachment. This paper focuses on the motion of hydrophobic ferrofluid droplets traveling through viscous aqueous media, whereby the movement is induced by gradients in external fields generated by small permanent magnets. A numerical method was utilized to predict the force on a spherical droplet, and then the calculated force was used to estimate the time required for the droplet to reach the permanent magnet. The calculated forces and travel times were verified experimentally. 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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UH1053 Muramyl peptides activate innate immunity conjointly via YB1 and NOD2
  Alexander G Laman, Richard Lathe, Anna O Shepelyakovskaya, Alexandra Gartseva, Feodor A Brovko, Svetlana Guryanova1, Ludmila Alekseeva1, Elena A Meshcheryakova1 and Vadim T Ivanov
PDF icon Bacterial cell wall muramyl dipeptide (MDP) and glucosaminyl-MDP (GMDP) are potent activators of innate immunity. Two receptor targets, NOD2 and YB1, have been reported; we investigated potential overlap of NOD2 and YB1 pathways. Separate knockdown of NOD2 and YB1 demonstrates that both contribute to GMDP induction of NF-kB expression, a marker of innate immunity, although excess YB1 led to induction in the absence of NOD2. YB1 and NOD2 co-migrated on sucrose gradient centrifugation, and GMDP addition led to the formation of higher molecular mass complexes containing both YB1 and NOD2. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated a direct interaction between YB1 and NOD2, a major recombinant fragment of NOD2 (NACHT–LRR) bound to YB1, and complex formation was stimulated by GMDP. We also report subcellular colocalization of NOD2 and YB1. Although YB1 may have other binding partners in addition to NOD2, maximal innate immunity activation by muramyl peptides is mediated via an interaction between YB1 and NOD2.
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UH1054 Linamarase production by some microbial isolates and a comparison of the rate of degradation of cassava cyanide by microbial and cassava linamarases
  Ogbonnaya Nwokoro
PDF icon Production of linamarase and the effects of media composition on enzyme production were studied. A total of eight linamarase-producing bacteria were isolated from fer- menting cassava tubers and soil samples. Selection of the isolates was based on their fast growth in media containing 800 mg/L potassium cyanide solution. Eight of the isolates which showed very fast growth in the growth medium as demonstrated by increase in their optical density readings to at least 0.6 in the cyanide containing media were selected for further studies. The isolates were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Leuconostoc mesente- roides, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis. All the isolates were grown in media containing Tween 80 solution and in control media without the surfactant. Best enzyme activity of 6.82 U/mL was obtained in the medium containing Tween 80 sol- ution and Lactobacillus fermentum as the test bacterium. Comparatively, linamarase production by the isolates in media without Tween 80 showed lower enzyme productivity. Cassava endogenous and microbial enzymes were tested for their abilities to hydrolyze cyanide in cassava flour samples pretreated to either remove the endogenous or microbial enzyme. Residual cyanide in cassava flour samples treated with linamarase of Lactobacillus plantarum was undetected in 30 h, while in contrast, the residual cyanide in cassava flour samples treated with endogenous linamarase was 0.39 mg/10 g cassava flour after 80 h. Residual cyanide in the untreated control sample was 1.98 mg HCN /10 g cassava flour after 80 h. The results from this finding demonstrated improved cassava cyanide degrad- ation with microbial linamarase as compared to endogenous cassava linamarase. Massive inoculation of fermenting cassava tubers with the isolates reported in this study would enable better control of the cassava fermentation process and may lead to the production of standardized and non-toxic cassava food products.
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UH1055 Development and characterization of valsartan loaded hydrogel beads
  K. Raja Rajeswari , K. Abbulu , M. Sudhakar , Roopa Karki , B. Rajkumar
PDF icon The present work was aimed for the formulation design and characterization of hydrogel beads to obtain an effective stimuli-responsive release of the antihypertensive drug, Valsartan. Hydrogel beads were prepared using xanthan gum, soluplus and acrylamide as polymers, methylene bis acrylamide as crossinker and potassium per sulfate as reaction initiator. The beads were characterized by FTIR, DSC and SEM. The studies showed that there were no possible chemical interaction between the drug and the polymers and SEM revealed that the beads were of spherical in shape with good surface morphology. The beads showed a good entrapment efficiency of about 90% HH and the swelling rate was found to be more at higher P . The percentage drug release was also higher as the P increased and was observed to be reduced at higher concentrations of the crosslinking agent. The hydrogel beads followed zero order non-fickian diffusion mechanism. Thus the hydrogel bead system as an effective stimuli- responsive drug delivery system was developed which offered a solubilizing cross-linked network matrix for the poorly soluble drug, Valsartan providing the best controlled release of the drug over 24 hrs.
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PDF icon Microalgae are promising feedstock for sustainable biofuel and bioenergy production. Preprocessing of harvested biomass involves several technical challenges that prevent the commercial success of the technology. In this study, thin layer drying kinetics of mixed species microalgae consortium suitable for biofuel production was studied at different drying temperature of 30, 50, 70 and 90°C. Effect of cell rupture pretreatments like French press, sonication and autoclave on the moisture removal rate, diffusivity and lipid properties of the consortium was also assessed. Page’s model described the experimental moisture loss data of both ruptured and intact microalgal cells. It was also found that cell rupture had increased drying constant, effective diffusivity and the lipid extraction yield through solvent extraction and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction when compared to the intact cells.
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UH1057 A comparative study of fatty acid profile and formation of biofilm in Geobacillus gargensis exposed to variable abiotic stress
  Noor Essa Al-Beloshei, Husain Al-Awadhi, Rania A. Al-Khalaf, and Mohammad Afzal
PDF icon Understanding bacterial fatty acid (FA) profile has a great taxonomic significance as well as clinical importance for diagnosis issues. Both the composition and nature of membrane FAs change under different nutritional, biotic and (or) abiotic stresses, and environmental stress. Bacteria produce both odd-carbon as well as branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs). This study was designed to examine the effect of abiotic pressure, including salinity, temperature, pH, and oxinic stress on the growth, development, and FA profile in thermophilic Geobacillus gargensis. Under these stresses, 3 parametric ratios, 2-methyl fatty acids/3-methyl fatty acids (iso-/anteiso-FAs), BCFAs/straight-chain saturated fatty acids (SCSFA), and SCSFAs/straight-chain unsat- urated fatty acids (SCUFA), in addition to total lipids affected by variable stresses were measured. Our results indicate that the ratio of total iso-/anteiso-FAs increased at the acidic pH range of 4.1–5.2 and decreased with increasing pH. The reverse was true for salt stress when iso-/anteiso-FAs ratio increased with salt concentration. The BCFAs/SCSFAs and SCSFAs/SCUFAs ratios increased at neutral and alkaline pH and high salt concentration, reduced incubation time, and comparatively high temperature (55–65 °C) of the growth medium. The bacterial total lipid percentage deceased with increasing salt concentration, incubation period, but it increased with temperature. The formation of extracellular polymeric substances was observed under all stress conditions and with the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (2 and 5 mmol/L) to the growth medium. The membrane phos- pholipid composition of the bacterium was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography.
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UH1058 Pharmacological Stimulation of Phagocytosis Enhances Amyloid Plaque Clearance; Evidence from a Transgenic Mouse Model of ATTR Neuropathy
  Eleni Fella, Kleitos Sokratous, Revekka Papacharalambous, Kyriacos Kyriacou, Joy Phillips, Sam Sanderson, Elena Panayiotou and Theodoros Kyriakides
PDF icon Hereditary ATTR V30M amyloidosis is a lethal autosomal dominant sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy caused by deposition of aberrant transthyretin (TTR). Immunohistochemical examination of sural nerve biopsies in patients with amyloidotic neuropathy show co-aggregation of TTR with several proteins; including apolipoprotein E, serum amyloid P and components of the complement cascade. Complement activation and macrophages are increasingly recognized to play a crucial role in amyloidogenesis at the tissue bed level. In the current study we test the effect of two C5a receptor agonists and a C5a receptor antagonist (PMX53) on disease phenotype in ATTR V30M mice. Our results indicate that amyloid deposition was significantly reduced following treatment with the C5a receptor agonists, while treatment with the antagonist resulted in a significant increase of amyloid load. Administration of the C5a receptor agonists triggered increased recruitment of phagocytic cells resulting in clearance of amyloid deposits.
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UH1059 Comparison of Cell Disruption and Lipid Extraction Methods for Improving Lipid Content of Schizochytrium sp. S31
  Nurcan Vardar Yel, Emrah Yelboğa, Melek Tüter, Nevin Gül Karagüler
PDF icon Downstream processing steps required to obtain lipid from microalgal biomass once large scale production process is completed. Different types of cell disruption and extraction methods have been used in the literature to recover microalgal lipids. According to our results, ultrasonication with hexane method increased the total lipid yield significantly with clear appearance. Sonication resulted in a 1.4-fold increase in lipid yield when compared with solvent alone. Soxhlet extraction and incubation method were also compared. Because of the soxhlet type of lipid extraction apparatus is not suitable for the extraction of thermolabile biological products, incubation method which is also known as cold extraction was used for lipid extraction. However, these traditional lipid extraction methods use large amounts of solvents that are mostly toxic. Supercritical extraction has also been employed since it does not use toxic solvent. Based on contour plot analysis, 30.2% lipid yield was obtained under optimum extraction conditions.
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UH1060 Bioprospecting microbes for single-cell oil production from starchy wastes
  Shivani Chaturvedia, Arti Kumaria, Lata Nainb, and Sunil K. Kharea
PDF icon Production of lipid from oleaginous yeast using starch as a carbon source is not a common practice; therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to explore the capability of starch assimilating microbes to produce oil, which was determined in terms of biomass weight, productivity, and lipid yield. Saccharomyces pastorianus, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Rhodotorula glutinis, and fungal isolate Ganoderma wiiroense were screened for the key parameters. The optimization was also performed by one-factor- at-a-time approach. Considering the specific yield of lipid and cell dry weight yield, R. glutinis and R. mucilaginosa showed superiority over other strains. G. wiiroense, a new isolate, would also be a promising strain for starch waste utilization in terms of extracellular and intracellular specific yield of lipids. Extracellular specific yield of lipid was highest in R. glutinis culture (0.025 g g−1 of biomass) followed by R. mucilaginosa (0.022 g g−1 of biomass) and G. wiiroense (0.020 g g−1 of biomass). Intracellular lipid was again highest in R. glutinis (0.048 g g−1 of biomass). The most prominent fatty acid methyl esters among the lipid as detected by GC-MS were saturated lipids mainly octadecanoic acid, tetradecanoate, and hexadecanoate. Extracellular lipid produced on starch substrate waste would be a cost-effective alternative for energy-intensive extraction process in biodiesel industry.
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Ultrasonic Homogenizers
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Ultrasonic Homogenizers are also referred to as Sonicators, Cell Disruptors, Probe Sonicators, Sonifiers®, and Sonic Dismembrators

Sonifier is a registered trademark of Branson Ultrasonics Corporation

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