Alphabetical Listing ( A - H )
Acetobacter suboxydans - complete disruption in a few seconds
Actinomyces - 3 minute sonicating produced excellent disruption with 50% protein released and excellent enzyme activity
Actinomycin D - suspended or dissolved in 3 minutes
Aerobacter aerogenes - excellent breakage with better enzyme release than any other method. A low power setting can release sulfatase activity into the supernate with no obvious disruption of the majority of cells.
Algae scenedesmus - 10 ml concentrated solution completely disrupts in 1 minute
Alkaloids - total amount as well as speed of extraction is greater using the SONIC DISMEMBRATOR than with standard methods. Extraction from ipecac root in 30 seconds yielded more alkaloid than Soxhlet extraction in 5 hours.
Antibioticus - monocellular elements from surface-grown colonies abtained in 1 minute 50% disruption in 2 minutes. Complete disruption in 5 minutes.
Antigen - the SONIC DISMEMBRATOR is extensively used to produce antigens and vaccines, either to increase yield or expose otherwise unobtainable sites.
Antigen/antibody complexes - these complexes can be broken apart.
Aorta - 1 gram disintegrates in 2 minutes.
Aphanomyces - after blending, complete disruption in 3 minutes.
Arthrobacter tumescans - 10 gm in 40 ml disrupted in 5 minutes for 0 coumaric reductose.
Ascaris eggs - concentrated solution, 8 ml, complete breakage in 3 1/2 minutes.
Asperigillus - complete disruption in 4 minutes.
Aurefaciens - monocellular elements from surface-grown colonies obtained in 1 minute. 50% disruption in 2 minutes. Complete disruption in 5 minutes.
Azotobacter Vinelandii - 15 ml buffered solution, 200 mg wet wt. per ml, complete disruption in 2 minutes.
Bacillus - Stereothermophulus (Thermophilllic spore form) 98% disruption in 15 minutes of 70ml of 40% suspension.
Bacteroides symbiosis - 1 phosphofructokinase a soluble enzyme has been isolated from this anaerobe by ultrasonic treatment. A 25 ml suspension was sonicated for 10 minutes and centrifuged at 36,000 xg for 10 minutes.
B. anthracis - 80% disruption in 4 minutes Eryisipelothrix rhusipathiae, 10ml complete disruption in 10 minutes.
B. cereus veg cells - disruption in a few seconds
B. cereus spores - disruption of 6 ml, 13 minutes.
B. megaterium spores - concentrated 6 ml solution, 15 minutes for complete breakage.
B. stereothermophilis spores - complete disruption in 2 minutes.
B. subtilis - disruption of 5 gm wet we., 15 ml buffer, in 5 minutes.
B. subtilis veg cells - heavy suspension cleears in 1 minute.
Baker’s yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae) - 9 grams pressed yeast in 18 ml buffer, complete disruption in 8 minutes. Protin release, 52 mg/ml from an aged sample.
Blastomyces dermatitidis - 95% disruption in 3 minutes.
Blood cells - red and white cells can be disrupted in a few seconds.
Boll weevil tissue - complete homogenization in a few seconds.
Bone - compact bone can be sonicated and processed for microscopic sections in minutes as opposed to several days or even a week by other methods. Bone specimens treated in this way yielded large numbers of intact cells with little distortion. Malignant criteria were easily recognized. Tumor types studied were ostsarcoma, chondrosarcoma, liposarcoma, chordoma, metastatic bronchogenic squamous and benign giant. Bone can be decalcified withour injury to the cells in a short time, processed for microscopic sections, and diagnosed. Other methods require extensive treatment time.
Brain stem and adrenal gland - sonicating dispersed 10 mg samples in 10 ml fluid, normally difficult without substantial loss of material. Suspension analyzed for nucleotides.
Brain tissue - complete disruption instantly.
Brevi bacterium - 25 ml disrupts in 20 seconds.
Brevi bacterium acetylicum - approximately 3 minutes to disrupt large samples and measure TCA enzyme activity.
Brine Shrimp - complete disruption in 1 minute.
Brucella abortes - separates easily from leukocytes. At least 9 antigens extracted.
Bull sperm - contractile protein more easily extracable from tails after sonicating.
C. butyricum - vegetative cells easily disrupted.
C. cylinrosporum - vegetative cells easily disrupted.
C. Kluyveri - vegetative cells easily disrupted.
C. pasteurianum - 3 minute disruption for hydrogens reducing Ferredoxin with H2.
Calcium - mouse Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were sonicated for 1 minute to determine the amount of bound calcium present. Cells were labeled with calcium 45.
Candida albicans spores - 95% disruption in 35 minutes 15ml solution, 1/2 gm dry wt.
Carbon black - excellent small particle suspension and deagglomeration.
Caryophanon latum - sonication yields glucosamine, muramin acid, alanine, glutamin acid and lysine.
Catecholamine - can be extracted from heart muscle through sonication.
Cellumonas biazotea - disruption obtained with retention of malate dehydrogenase activity.
Chemical (and physical) reactions - accelerated by sonication, as are enzymatic processes.
Chicken sperm - 30 ml complete disruption in 2 minutes.
Chlorella - 10 ml complete disruption in 3 minutes
Chloroplasts - disrupt in a few seconds.
Cholesterol - apparent permanent suspension in 1 minute in water.
Chromatography - prior ultrasonic treatment of absorbant in any convenient solvent for a few seconds eliminates aggregates and results in a uniform, easily packed column.
Clostridium - quickly disrupts all types.
Coagulase-globulin - sonicating before precipitation yields much more enzymes.
Collagen - an excellent fragmentation.
Colletotrichum capsici spores - 5 ml with 6 million spores/ml, complete disruption in 4 minutes.
Corticosteroid - particle size can be reduced to approximately 5 mic. Large volumes can be treated at the rate of approximately 30ml/min on a continuous flow basis.
Corynebacterium - complete disruption in 4 minutes with 50% protein release and excellent enzyme activity.
Cryptococcus laurentii - complete disruption in 7 minutes with good protein release and enzyme activity.
Cryptostroma corticale (maple bark spores) - concentrated 6 cc solution, complete disruption 14 minutes.
Crystal reduction - large crystals of an organic compound suspended in isopropanol can be reduced in diameter by 10 to 40%.
Cyanidium caldarium - concentrated 5 ml solution disrupts in 6 minutes.
Decalcify - bone may be decalcified without injury to the cells, processed for microscopic sections, and diagnosed in a short time - as opposed to several days or even a week by other methods.
Dental plaques - 5 ml solution, concentration 1 to 10,000, low power setting, 53,500,000 organisms per ml were obtained in 45 seconds.
Desulfovibrio vulgaris - less than 30 seconds of sonicating resulted in release of TCA enzymes.
Diplococcus - complete disruption in 5 minutes.
DNA - breaks chain on low power instantly. Controlled degradation may be obtained.
Dyes - excellent rapid dispersion and homogenization.
E. coli - 2 gm wet wt in 10 ml solution, complete disruption 40 seconds. The Sonic Dismembrator has been used extensively in research on this organism.
Egg whites - can be reduced to homogeneous, pipettable solution in 15 seconds on low power.
Ehrlich ascites - disrupt in a few seconds.
Electron microscopy - apertures are quickly cleaned.
Embryonic duodenum - a 1 ml sample is easliy homogenized in 15 seconds with a special microtip.
Emulsions - 10 ml of most light mixtures become semi-permanent emulsions in about 1 minute without emulsifiers; average particle size is usually well under 1 micron. Sterile emulsions can be prepared by ultrasonic treatment for feeding to germ-free animals.
Enterococcus - excellent disruption
Erwina cartovara - complete disruption in 2 minutes depending on cell concentration.
Erythrocyctes - easily disrupted in a few seconds.
Euglena gracilis - complete disruption in a few seconds to isolate chloroplasts.
Eugoena - 90% disruption in 8 minutes with pigment released. Complete disruption in 12 minutes.
Extraction - excellent for oils, fats and lipids, alkaloids.
Fasciola hepatica - complete disruption in less than 1 minute.
Fat extraction - fat may be emulsified without injuring tissue with proper power selection. Lipid layer can be strppied from spores and mycobacteria.
Fibrin - complete suspension 1/8 gm in 30 minutes.
Fish gill - complete disruption of 20mg in 30 seconds.
Fish tissue - tissue homogenization for extractions, excellent particle size reduction, 8 minutes per 10gm.
Fluorocarbons - extended treatment time will break down particle size to well under 1 micron and gives a fine homogenate.
Fossils - low power will clean debris from delicate fossils without injury. Micro fossils such as pollen can be separated from rocks to help identify the geological age of the strata. Removal of rock matrix.
Fuel oil and water - permanent emulsions without wetting agents can be formed on continuous flow basis.
Gamma globulin - the Sonic Dismembrator was used to solubilize protein as one of the steps in the biosynthesis of gamma globulin from rabbit spleen.
Gangliosides - immunochemical and structure studies were aided by an ultrasonic treatment as one step during the procedure.
Gastric mucosa - placing scrapings into a test tube and test tube into Heat Systems specially designed Cup Horn permits these cells to be separated and not broken.
Germ free - sonication is a good method for preparing sterile emulsions fed to germ free animals.
Graphite molybdenum disulfide - an excellent dispersion of this lubricant was made in silicate binder.
Guanine - produces colloidal suspension in 1 minute
Gymnodinium - 10 ml solution completely disrupts in 6 minutes.
Heart muscle - 1 gm disrupts in 6 minutes.
HeLa cells - disruption to free virus in a few seconds without injury.
Hemophilus pertussis - an immunological compound prepared.
Herpes virus - may be quickly released without injury.
Histoplasma capsulatum - sonicating for 7 minutes completely ruptured cells prepared by formalin fixation. Good enzymeactivity was obtained.
Human serum proteins - sonication causes a reproducible change in the electrophoretic behavior of norma; human serum consisting of an increase in material migrating in the v and b globulin zones with a reduction in the albumin and y globulin fractions.
Hydrocortisone - smaller crystals were produced by sonication.
Hydrophilic vegetable gums - disperses and solubilizes hydrophilic vegetable gums in water; makes dispersions of added particulate matter.
Sonifier is a registered trademark of Branson Ultrasonics Corporation