Alphabetical Listing ( I - S )
Intracellular membrane - disruption and particle size reduction obtained in 30-60 seconds.
Isoenzymes - are selectively activated with respect to time and intensity of treatment.
Kidney - 1 gm disrupts in 3 minutes.
Kidney stones - easliy broken in seconds in vitro.
Klebsiella - excellent disruption.
Lactobacillus - 0.5 gm in 15 ml, complete disruption in 11 minutes. Excellent release of acetokinase.
L. arabinosis - complete disruption to free virus in 2 minutes without injury.
Leuconostoc mesenteriodes - ultrasonic treatment in 15 minutes using high power fir disruption.Leukocyte lysozme activity in myelocytic leukemia - the cell suspension was sonicated and samples assayed for lysozyme activity. The lysozyme concentration of the leukocytes ug./10 cells were determined.
Linoleic acid - made suspension in water in 30 seconds.
Liped vesicles - excellent results preparing small, unilamellar phospholipid vesicles with Cup Horn attachment, as well as by direct probe sonication.
Liver tissue - 1 gm homogenizes in less than 1 minute.
Lung tissue - 1 gm homogenizes in 2 minutes.
Lymphacytis - complete disruption in 15 seconds.
Lymphocyte nuclei - complete disruption in 6 minutes.
Lymphography - direct injection lymphography with a modified radiopaque emulsion was obtained by sonication in a functional procedure producing lymphatic structure detail.
Lysosomes - released enzymes quickly.
Malaria protozoa - excellent disruption quickly.
Maple bark spores - complete disruption in 14 minutes.
Measles - disruption of virus (measles) antigen clumps present in infected cells on low power. Sonication increased antigen titer 4-8 fold.
Methanobacillus omelianskii - complete disruption for assaying methane. 1 gm cells wet wt/ml of 0.5M, in 2 minutes.
Microbacterium lacticum - ultrasonic treatment used for malate dehydrogenase extraction.
Micrococci - complete disruption in 15 minutes, 13 ml solution.
Micrococcus lactiliticus - 75 ml of a 20% suspension was disrupted in 15 minutes. A good yield of the enzyme Xanthine dehydrogenase was extracted.
Mineral rock - excellent for cleaning surfaces between polishing stages.
Mitochondria - separates from cells without injury. Mitochondria themselves can be broken with longer sonication. Inner membrane sub units also isolated.
Muscle tissue - 1 gm homogenized in 4 minutes.; heart muscle 6 minutes.
Mycobacteria - 20 ml growing media completely disrupts in 14 minutes. Breaks clumps quickly. An immunological compound prepared.
Mycoplasma antibody - a suspension of Campo-W cells treated for 5 minutes gave 12 lines with the sera in a gel diffusion test. The extract was estimated to contain 12.75 mg protein per ml by Blaret reaction.
Myeloma tumor cells - Complete disruption in 10 minutes. 30% disruption in 2 minutes.
Myleran - made colloidal suspension and dissolved in approximately 1 minute.
Naegleri gruberi - this free-living soil amoeba was sonicated to release subcellular infectious material.
N. crassa - nuclease was isolated and purified from conidial extracts after 5 minute treatment.
Neurospora - 40 ml, 4 minute produces more protein than freeze thawing for study of enzymatic synthesis of cystathionine.
Nocardia Ostenodes - breaks clumps and disrupts in less than 10 minutes.
Nucleoprotein - extracted from tissue. May be degraded selectively.
Oil and water emulsions - permanent, stable emulsions in a few seconds. Particle size reduced to less than 1/2 micron (each case slightly different). Oil in water-water in oil phases can be obtained in same vessel. Continuous flow process is available.
Oyster shell - small clean hole can be drilled with microtip in 3 minutes. No cracking is produced.
Paracolon - excellent disruption.
Parasites - easily separated from red cells in a few seconds.
Pasteurella pestis - complete disruption in 30 minutes of 20 ml using high power.
Penicillium - complete disruption in 3 minutes.
Pesticides - ultrasonic treatment resulted in a 16 fold improvement in the potency of the antigen used with Microcrystalline cellulose as a thin-layer absorbent for chromatographic separation.
Phosphatidate phosphohydrolase - the most potent inhibitors for this enzyme were obtained by making five dispersions with the Sonic Dismembrator.
Phospholipid micelles - produced stable preparations for an indefinite period.
Plant cells - 30% packed plant cells (W/V) and distilled water (depending on type) can be completely disrupted in 15 minutes.
Platelets - complete disruption according to size from 20 seconds to 4 minutes.
Pneumococci - preserved in formalin for several years; complete disruption in 6 minutes.
Polio virus - excellent disruption of this most difficult virus.
Powders - are broken down to a small, relatively uniformparticle size.
PPLO - complete disruption in 2 minutes.
Propionobacteria - releases sulfhydro groups intact 70 ml of 20% suspension processed in 10 minutes.
Propionibacterium Shermanii - 2 minutes for extraction of citrate synthose.
Proteus - excellent disruption.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa - rapid, complete disruption.
Pseudomonas fluorescens - 2 gm wet wt in 10 ml, complete disruption in 1 minute.
Pulmonary cytodiagnosis - the mucus in sputum can be evenly dispersed affording a quick representative sample of cells of cytologic examination. Cells are liberated from the mucus of sputum that has been immersed in 50% alcohol or fixative.
Ragweed pollen - 15 ml solution completely disrupts in 11 minutes.
Rat bone - 1/2 gm disrupts in 4 minutes.
Rat liver - complete disruption in 3 minutes.
Rat liver mitochondria - ultrasonic treatment has been used extensively for the varied research performed on this material. Disruption time is a matter of seconds.
Rat skin - complete disruption 1 gm in 4 minutes.
Red cell - sonicating breaks particle size to 100 Angstroms. Complete disruption in 1 minute. 25 gms/100ml, saline or plasma, sample treated 15 seconds, 35% disruption. Adenosine triphosphate was shown to be membrane bound by this method.
Reovirus - dissociates cell-bound and aggregated virus. Maximum titer with 4 ml of virus was achieved in 2 minutes.
Retinal outer segments - sonicating breaks particles down to almost molecular size.
Rhodopseudomonis palustris - complete disruption in 4 minutes.
Rhodospirillum rubrum - excellent disruption in a few seconds.
Rimosus - monocellular elements from surface-grown colonies obtained in 1 minute. Complete disruption in 5 minutes. 50% disruption in 2 minutes.
RNA - rapid and throrough re-suspension of 9 PCA pellets during extractions.>
Rocks - excellent for disaggregation of sedimentary rock. Excellent for cleaning material rock surfaces between polishing stages.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker’s yeast) - 9 gm pressed yeast in 18 ml buffer; complete disruption in 8 minutes. Protein release 52 mg/ml from an aged sample.
Saliva glands - complete disruption.
Salmonella - various culture media or phosphate buffered saline disintegrated between 40 and 50% in 10-20 minutes. Sonicating was one step in an improved assay for enzyme thiogalactosize transacetylase.
Salmonella typhimurium and enteritidis - bacteria were suspended in 1/300 volume of original culture, sonicated for 4 minutes and centrifuged for 20 minutes at 20,000 g. Extracts were found to catalyze the synthesis of cytidine diphosphate 3, 6-dideozyhexoses.
Schistosoma mansoni - complete disruption.
Sedimentary rock - completely disperses flocs with the release of all bound silt and clay particles.
Sediments - Sonicating readily disperses fine material allowing a quick, neat separation of the sand from silt and clay fractions.
Serial number restoration - used in crime laboratories to restore obliterated serial numbers.
Serratia marcescens - complete breakdown in 1 minute for a 12 ml concentrated solution.
Serum - quickly homogenized.
Serum cholinesterase - activated by ultrasonic treatment. Different cholinesterase isoenzymes may be activated selectively and inactivated selectively.
S. faecalis - excellent disruption in 1 minute.
S. fragilis - 5 minute yielded excellent release of galactokinase; much more than any other methos. Sub cellular particles may be extracted or disrupted.
Shale - excellent disaggregation of all fine grained sedimentary rocks.
Shellfish - by drilling a clean hole with the microtip, various fluids or samples may be withdrawn or injected from living shellfish without destroying the animal.
Shigella - quick disruption.
Skin - 1 gm disrupts in about 4 minutes. Epidermal homogenates can be extracted that are able to respire and utilize substrate.
Soil - separates solid particles without the use of oxidents, acids orpeptizing agents and yields stable suspension.
Sperm (human) - tails are broken instantly, heads are broken in 20 minutes.
Sputum - Cancer cells are more easliy detected after ultrasonic treatment due to even dispersion of cells and sputum, and complete liberation of the cells from sputum.
Staphylococcus - concentrated solution, 15 ml, 98% disruption in 10 minutes. With 1 gm cells wet wt, to 2 gm water, 54.5 mg/ml of protein was released.
Starch - obtained by extracting from green plant leaf homogenate.
Streptococcus, Group A - 20% suspension in 15 ml solution completely disrupts in 15 minutes.
Streptomyces - monocellular elements from surface-grown colonies obtained in 1 minute. 50% disruption in 2 minutes. Complete disruption in 5 minutes.
Sub cellular particles - may be separated or broken depending upon power selection aand length of time.
Sulfanilamide - excellent disperion in less than 1 minute. Continues sonication will prroduce complete disruption.
Sulfapyridine - excellent dispersion in less than 1 minute. Continued sonication will produce complete disruption.
Synovial fluid - sonicating is an excellent means of reducing fluid viscosity. The ultrasonic method is both simpler and faster than using hyaluronidase.
Sonifier is a registered trademark of Branson Ultrasonics Corporation